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  • What is hepatitis?

    Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. When the liver is inflamed or damaged, its function can be affected. Heavy alcohol use, toxins, some medications, and certain medical conditions can all cause hepatitis. However, hepatitis is often caused by a virus.

  • What is the difference between hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C?

    Hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C are liver infections caused by three different viruses. Although each can cause similar symptoms, they are spread in different ways and can affect the liver differently. Hepatitis A is usually a short-term infection. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C can also begin as short-term infections but in some people, the virus remains in the body, and causes chronic (lifelong) infection. There are vaccines to prevent hepatitis A and hepatitis B; however, there is no vaccine for hepatitis C.

  • What is the likelihood that acute hepatitis C will become chronic?

    Approximately 75%–85% of people who become infected with hepatitis C virus will develop a chronic infection.

  • How is hepatitis C spread?

    Hepatitis C is usually spread when blood from a person infected with the hepatitis C virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. Today, most people become infected with the hepatitis C virus by sharing needles or other equipment to prepare or inject drugs.

    People can become infected with the hepatitis C virus during such activities as:

    • Sharing needles, syringes, or other equipment to prepare or inject drugs
    • Needlestick injuries in health care settings
    • Being born to a mother who has hepatitis C
    • Having sexual contact with a person infected with the hepatitis C virus
    • Getting a tattoo or body piercing in an unregulated setting

    Hepatitis C virus is not spread by sharing eating utensils, breastfeeding, hugging, kissing, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. It is also not spread through food or water.

  • Can hepatitis C virus be spread through sexual contact?

    Yes, but the risk of transmission from sexual contact is believed to be low. The risk increases for people who have multiple sex partners, have a sexually transmitted disease, engage in rough sex, or are infected with HIV.

  • Is it possible to have hepatitis C and not know it?

    Yes, many people who are infected with the hepatitis C virus do not know they are infected because they do not look or feel sick.

  • Who should get tested for hepatitis C?
    • Current or former injection drug users, including those who injected only once many years ago
    • Everyone born from 1945 to 1965
    • Long-term hemodialysis patients
    • Health care workers or public safety workers after needle sticks involving blood from someone infected with hepatitis C virus
    • People with HIV infection
    • Children born to mothers with hepatitis C
    • People in jails or prisons
    • People who use drugs snorted through the nose (in addition to people who inject drugs)
    • People who get an unregulated tattoo
  • What blood tests are used to test for hepatitis C?

    The only way to know if you have hepatitis C is to get tested and you may need more than one type of test. A blood test, called a hepatitis C antibody test, can tell if you have ever been infected with the hepatitis C virus. Antibodies are chemicals released into the bloodstream when someone gets infected. Another test, called a hepatitis C virus RNA test, can tell if you have a current infection with the hepatitis C virus. RNA is the virus’ genetic material.

  • What is the treatment for acute hepatitis C?

    There is not a recommended treatment for acute hepatitis C. People with acute hepatitis C virus infection should be followed by a doctor and only considered for treatment if their infection remains and becomes a chronic infection.

    There are several medications available to treat chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis C treatments have gotten much better in recent years. Current treatments usually involve just 8-12 weeks of oral therapy (pills) and cure over 90% of people with few side effects.